Research Highlights

Metabolic Syndrome/Cardiovascular Disease

  • Study Says Fructose Not Likely Contributor to Obesity Epidemic

    Fructose is not likely a contributor to the obesity epidemic in the U.S., according to the results of a recent study. The study, “Food availability of glucose and fat, but not fructose, increased in the US between 1970 and 2009: analysis of USDA food availability data system”, examined the trends in food and nutrient intake from 1970-2009 from data collected by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)…
  • Research Shows No Harm at Typical Intake Levels

    Fructose does not increase body weight, blood pressure, uric acid or insulin levels, and may improve glycemic control at normal consumption levels, according to research. A commentary done by Sievenpiper et al, “Fructose: Where does the truth lie?,” found that “the available evidence in humans did not support the view that fructose is harmful at typical intakes…”
  • “Response to Fructose Likely Does Have a Role in Hypertension” by Ha et al.

    We thank Madero et al for their letter regarding our systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of fructose on blood pressure (BP). The authors expressed concern with excluding trials of high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose while including a trial of fructose in fruit form…
  • “Dietary Fructose and Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes” by Bantle.

    When ingested by humans, fructose is absorbed by an active transport system but at a slower rate than is glucose. Coingestion of glucose increases intestinal absorptive capacity for fructose. In the absence of glucose, human intestinal capacity to absorb fructose appears to be quite variable with some people unable to completely absorb 30- to 40-g quantities…

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Diabetes

  • Is there really a link between type 2 diabetes and fructose?

    In a commentary featured in the September 2013 publication of Nutrition Bulletin, author Dr. Geoffrey Livesey dismisses the association between fructose consumption and type 2 diabetes.
    In the peer-reviewed journal article, Dr. Livesey addresses questions typically asked when discussing the health effects of fructose, such as the validity of recent studies that found an association between fructose and increased absorption of fat in the liver...

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Body Weight

  • Fructose Not Linked to Weight Gain

    A new study on fructose and weight loss has shown that “fructose does not seem to cause weight gain when it is substituted for other carbohydrates in diets providing similar calories.”  Since fructose is metabolized differently than glucose, some have wondered if fructose may play a role in the obesity epidemic…
  • Extensive Research Demonstrates that Fructose Does Not Increase Food Intake or Impact Body Weight

    A new comprehensive review concludes that fructose does not increase food intake or impact body weight or blood triglycerides in overweight or obese individuals.  The review, which was recently published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, examined data regarding the normal consumption of fructose and any subsequent development of alterations in lipid or and/or glucose metabolism or weight gain in overweight people…
  • Research Supports the Benefits of Fructose

    New research indicates that fructose may be a beneficial part of the diet, contrary to recent reports. Fructose occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables as well as honey…

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Plasma Lipids

  • Systematic Review Finds No Association between Fructose and Triglyceride Levels

    According to a new study, swapping fructose for other carbohydrates does not impact triglycerides. The systematic review found that when fructose replaced another type of carbohydrate, calories were kept the same and there was no increase in postprandial triglyceride levels, which is the amount of fat in a person’s blood after a meal…
  • “Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis” by Schaefer et al.

    Absorbed glucose and fructose differ in that glucose largely escapes first-pass removal by the liver, whereas fructose does not, resulting in different metabolic effects of these 2 monosaccharides. In short-term controlled feeding studies, dietary fructose significantly increases postprandial triglyceride (TG) levels and has little effect on serum glucose concentrations, whereas dietary glucose has the opposite effects…

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Uric Acid/Gout

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Other

  • No Need for Public Health Actions Regarding Fructose at this Time, Say Researchers

    In a July 2012 review, Tappy and Mittendorfer looked at whether the current science behind fructose supports implementation of new public health policies for which fructose critics have been clamoring. They concluded that, “There is clearly a need for more clinically relevant research before taking drastic public health actions to specifically target fructose-containing caloric sweeteners…because there is little evidence that fructose itself causes significant metabolic alterations when consumed in amounts consistent with current dietary habits…”
  • Fructose May Help Recovery from Heat- and Exercise-Induced Dehydration

    Kamijo et al examined whether carbohydrates in beverages could promote enhanced fluid retention after heat and exercise induced dehydration, and if this improvement was a result of an enhanced renal sodium reabsorption rate due to insulin secretion. Seven healthy young men participated in high carbohydrate, low carbohydrate, and no carbohydrate rehydration trials during which they drank beverages with varying concentrations of fructose and glucose after exercising in a hot environment…
  • “Fructose Malabsorption and Intolerance: Effects of Fructose with and without Simultaneous Glucose Ingestion” by Latulippe & Skoog.

    The inability to properly utilize fructose manifests in one of two forms: 1) a genetic aberration termed “hereditary fructose intolerance,” resulting from a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme aldolase B, or 2) incomplete fructose absorption (often referred to as fructose malabsorption), a condition not known to be genetic in which the capacity of the gut to transport fructose across the intestinal epithelium is exceeded…
  • “Fructose Ingestion: Dose-Dependent Responses in Health Research” by Livesey.

    Intervention studies have identified both potential benefits and risks of fructose consumption, and overdue focus on one rather than the other can influence beliefs about the role of fructose in the prevention or causation of disease. Researchers often use effects on markers of risk as a basis of hypotheses of clinical harm, but to date (2008) there is little evidence of such harm actually arising…
  • “Dietary Sweeteners Containing Fructose: Overview of a Workshop on the State of the Science” by Jones.

    The occurrence and impact of fructose in the American food supply have garnered much attention in recent years in both the popular press and the scientific community. Much of the popular attention has originated from concern about the shift toward the use of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) from sucrose and a lack of understanding that HFCS and sucrose are compositionally quite similar…
  • “Fructose and Satiety” by Moran.

    The role of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the current obesity epidemic is uncertain. The timing of the increase in the prevalence of obesity coincides with the increased use of HFCS in the diet and especially in soft drinks and with an overall increase in daily energy consumption, leading to suggestions that this dietary shift may be contributing to the obesity epidemic…

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